Affordable Cubicles

Writen by Steve Valentino

Cubicles help in segregating one employee from another, to provide them a certain amount of privacy as well as stop them from chatting with each other. Cubicles are in fact an economic substitute for private offices. All the companies could not provide private offices to their each and every staff member, whereas cubicles do the same work at an affordable cost.

Cubicles provide a certain amount of independence, and save money. The newcomers in the corporate world or growing companies need cubicles at further reduced prices. For this they go for used cubicles, because these can be bought for eighty to ninety percent less than the listed price. A well-maintained cubicle can sometimes almost look new. Not only used, but discounted, clearance, and wholesale cubicles are also available for the budget-minded office decor director. These are brand new cubicles to be used and appreciated by employees, but at a fraction of the regular cost. Look out for furniture liquidators as well - they can also offer deep discounts at affordable rates.

While purchasing cubicles the buyer has to be aware of the size and shape of cubicles, the number of shelves and drawers attached to it and the materials used in its manufacture. All help determine the cost of cubicles. Besides, all these used cubicles could be more affordable than the new ones because the prices of new cubicles are much higher than the used ones. And don't forget to check the quality before making a purchase; you don't want to buy cubicles that will fall apart in a year just so you could get the discount.

Cubicles provides detailed information on Cubicles, Office Cubicles, Used Cubicles, Affordable Cubicles and more. Cubicles is affiliated with Virtual Office Management.

Writen by Hans Bool

Some companies have a set of keywords they focus on when organizing activities. CLIENT, could be such a keyword, meaning to always focus on the client. RESULT and SOLUTION are two other examples. They seem clear, but carry a lot of difficulties with them.

Result is meant to be tangible and measurable. A project that is finished on time meets that criterion. A solution is like an answer to a question; It is an answer to a problem or set of problems. What problems are there? Lets have a look at a few:

  • There is a (relative) decline in the demand for products
  • Management information is not sufficient. It is not clear what the effect of a marketing campaign is
  • Current systems can not handle cooperative actions with third parties
  • Etc, etc...

Now, to solve this, you need a solution:

  • Hire an extra sales force
  • Build or maintain a system that solves the information leak and run more campaigns
  • Invest in new infrastructure that makes cooperation with third parties possible
  • Etc, etc…

The first solution is rather simple. It is a temporary demand on resources, which is manageable. The second one is already more challenging. Here you have many options. The third solution requires a familiar amount of attention.

If you stress "Result" more than (the type) of "Solution" you may end up with a very short term solution that will benefit for only a limited period of time. Besides you may overlook long term effects (compare with overexposure of sun and long term effects) New or different problems will occur and you have to redo the same actions. You can have a rapid solution. If you reserve too much time for figuring out a (perfect)solution you finally might come up with one, but that took too long. You cannot foresee all market movements and changes.

Result orientation is externally focused. It is measured by the sales of goods and services. By clients. Finding solutions is an internal focused activity. Within the different periods both should level themselves out. The best thing is to constantly level them as a constant point on the agenda; What kind of solutions do we normally choose in our organization.

Follow that line and you have a strategy.

© 2006 Hans Bool

Hans Bool is the founder of Astor White a traditional management consulting company that offers online management advice. Astor Online solves issues in hours what normally would take days. You can apply for a free demo account

Writen by Lance Winslow

If you think managing a multi-billion dollar multi-national conglomerate is tough well then imagine trying to give away money in a multi-billion dollar foundation? That will indeed be tough, but there are two men with quite a bit of management experience between them who are going to give it a shot.

Bill Gates and Warren Buffet have united in a common cause to help humanity to the tune of 60 Billion Dollars. That is right the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has added a trustee; Warren Buffet. Now their foundation has 60 Billion to spend on worthy causes to help the whole of humanity.

Giving away money is difficult and some say the most difficult thing in the world. Giving away money efficiently is very hard. But imagine what they can do together, these three great human beings. Imagine what will be done for Education and what about TB, AIDS and Malaria? These folks are really going to do it, imagine what a great gift this is for the world and it is really happening too. This is really and they are really doing it.

Maybe there is hope for humanity after all? But as they said it will not be easy to do, managing 60 Billion Dollars and giving it away without waste and efficiently as possible is one of the toughest things in the World to do. But if anyone can it will be Melinda, Bill and Warren who can get it done. Kudos to you all and thank you on behalf of the World. Consider this in 2006.

"Lance Winslow" - Online Think Tank forum board. If you have innovative thoughts and unique perspectives, come think with Lance;

Uncommon Energy Savings

Writen by Steve Kaye

Here are some easy things that you can do that will save energy.

1) Change time zones.

That is, when possible, travel when others are less likely to be on the road. For example, avoid rush hour traffic by leaving an hour early. Then use this extra hour to read, plan your day, or add an little extra to your job. If your company allows flex time hours, this could allow you to leave for home before rush hour starts.

Also, consider shopping early or late in the day. Besides encountering less traffic, you will find that there are fewer shoppers and shorter lines in the stores. That can reduce your time in the store by half.

2) Ride a bicycle.

But do this in your car. That is, pretend that you have to peddle in order to make your car move. Avoid quick starts, acceleration up hills, and driving into a stop. Instead, start easily, take it easy going up hills, and coast to a red light - just as if you were the engine.

Of course, use common sense. For example, move with the traffic and apply this when appropriate.

3) Shut it off.

Some people leave the engine running when they park. This is a terrible idea because: a) it wastes gas, b) it leaves the car exposed to theft, and c) if children are left in the car, they could cause an accident by putting the car in gear.

Similarly, turn off the engine any time that you have to wait for more than about half a minute, such as at a railroad crossing.

Note: most cars use about a gallon of gas an hour while in idle. If gas costs $4 a gallon, then 15 minutes of idle will cost you a dollar.

4) Stop transformers.

Most homes and offices have dozens of small transformers that supply power to printers, modems, computers, network hubs, scanners, and other accessories. Transformers are also used to recharge batteries in cell phones, cameras, and iPods.

These transformers keep using electricity even when the device has been turned off or has been disconnected.

While each transformer uses only a small amount of electricity, six or eight of them are equivalent to a standard light bulb. Over time that adds up to a significant amount of electricity.

Put all of the transformers on a circuit strip. They turn off the strip at the end of the day. Or, unplug the transformer when it's not being used.

- - -

Steve Kaye helps leaders hold effective meetings. He is an IAF Certified Professional Facilitator, author, and speaker. His meeting facilitation and leadership workshops create success for everyone. Call 714-528-1300 for details. Visit for a free report.

Writen by Manik Thapar

Why Delegate?

Delegation has a number of benefits. When you streamline your workload, you increase the amount of time available for essential managerial tasks. Your staff feel motivated and more confident, and stress level decrease across the workforce.


Delegate to boost staff morale, build confidence, and reduce stress

Increasing Your Time

Managers commonly complain that the short-term demands of operational and minor duties make it impossible to devote sufficient time to more important long term matters. Strategic planning control, and training are among the higher level activities that will suffer under the burden of under delegated, routine tasks that you wrongly attempt to do yourself. To create more time for yourself, more routine work should be handed down by delegation. Also, the more frequently you delegate the more experienced staff becomes, and the less time you need to spend on briefing.

Points To Remember

Am I devoting enough time and recourses to strategic planning and overall monitoring?

Is my desk overflowing with uncompleted tasks?

Are staff enthusiastic and sufficiently motivated?

Am I delegating routine but necessary tasks to staff?

Is staff training given priority to ensure effective skills for future delegation plans?

Reducing Stress

The pressure of managers to perform under demanding conditions can lead to a marked increase in stress levels. The symptoms are visible in erratic and sometimes disoriented personal behavior, mounting paper work on desk, and overcrowded diaries. Clearing your desk, and your diary is best accomplished through delegation. Finally effective delegation not only eases the pressure on the delegator, but can benefit the delegate and the team or department as a whole. Before delegating, consider carefully the task requirements, and make a realistic assessment of your proposed delegate's ability.


Set aside enough time each day for concentrating on your long-term projects.

Delegating To Motivate

A sense of achievement is central to any employees job satisfaction. Effective delegation involves the stimulus of increased responsibility and can provide a delegate with an enriched level of satisfaction as well as greater sense of worth. Delegation is empowerment, and that is the main spring of better work. Your staff will not develop unless they are given tasks that build their abilities, experience, and confidence. They will perform best in a structured environment in which every one is aware of delegated duties and responsibilities and each has the necessary skills and resources to carry out tasks efficiently. Use regular and effective feedback sessions as tools for maintaining a delegate's motivation.


Make sure you have right experience to coach others

If delegation is not working, ask yourself, "What am I doing wrong?"

The Cost Of Avoiding Delegation

Delegation takes time to organize and prioritize but the cost of avoiding it is high. The manager who does not delegate or delegates inefficiently will not only seem disorganized, but will spend many hours each week completing low-propriety tasks. This can result in excessive hours worked by senior managers, low moral among underemployed staff, basic process slowed down by bottlenecks, poor quality of work, and missed deadlines. Together, all of these factors will have a detrimental effect on long-tem performance.

Delegating Ineffectively

A manager who avoids delegation cannot possibly hope to complete effectively all of the tasks that find their way on his or her desk

Manik Thapar (MBA)

Writen by Kelly Graves

It goes by many names -- conflict prevention, conflict resolution, conflict management, the names go on. These terms were all created to combat a similar problem. For the most part, people who deal with these issues all agree with the same principle:

Conflict resolution at an early stage is less costly and more manageable than trying to deal with its repercussions later.

First, let's discuss the types of conflicts we have observed in our years of experience working with organizations.

We have observed 3 major types of workplace conflict:

Task Conflict
Task conflict arises among members of work teams and specifically affects the goals and tasks they are striving to achieve. Differences in vision, intentions and quality expectations often lead to task conflict. Employee relationships may initially appear to survive task conflict but an important project may not. It is essential to channel task conflict so that these differences become collaborative and improve the way the team thinks about accomplishing current and future tasks.

Process Conflict
This form of conflict centers around the steps or methods used by a team to reach a goal. One person might like to plan 100 steps ahead while another might like to dive in head first. These differences in process can lead to communication breakdown and ultimately conflict. But, like task conflict, process conflict can be useful, if managed correctly. Healthy differences in process often will lead to an IMPROVED way of achieving goals.

Relationship Conflict
Often misunderstood, relationship conflict undermines and tears at the fabric of a team's ability to achieve goals effectively, efficiently and profitably. Relationship conflict penetrates all aspects of an organization. When people in a workplace fail to communicate effectively, entire work teams or even an entire organization will suffer. This type of conflict will quickly consume all the attention and energy of an organization, leaving little time to accomplish profitable tasks.

What can you do to bring conflict to a reasonable resolution? And how can it be beneficial to everyone involved? The goal is to increase the benefits achieved from encouraging task and process conflict while at the same time reducing, managing and understanding the negative effects of relationship conflict.

The benefits of effective conflict resolution are great:

  • Improve organizational decision making
  • Inspire employees to articulate and clarify their ideas and positions
  • Stimulate innovation, creativity and forward thinking
  • Improve individual and group performance
If no resolution is sought for conflict the affects are often devastating:
  • Job stress and burnout rises which typically increases absenteeism and turnover
  • Distrust and suspicion develops often creating an "us versus them" culture
  • Job satisfaction and performance falters
  • Employee loyalty and commitment declines
    Kelly Graves is the founder and CEO of Internal Solutions Consulting. ISC specializes in organizational conflict resolution. With over 85 years of combined experience in organizational conflict resolution, Internal Solutions is able to quickly address conflicts within an organization to facilitate a more successful, productive and profitable communication environment. For more informaiton about Internal Solutions Consulting please visit

    We encourage people to reproduce this article for their own needs. The article must be reproduced in ITS ENTIRITY. Please include the 'ABOUT THE AUTHOR' section with all author credits, hyperlinks and names. Also please include this section regarding article reproduction.

Six Sigma And Beyond

Writen by Tony Jacowski

"Six Sigma has galvanized our company with an intensity the likes of which I have never seen in my 40 years at GE." Jack Welch admitted this in the year 2000 annual report of GE. As one goes by various comments, it becomes clearer that Six Sigma is not just a fad created by top management but an effective tool to fix gaps in performance which play a role in making improvements to the bottom line and customer satisfaction.

But is it enough for companies to have the 'gaps' closed just once? Does it ensure that 'normalcy' will not return to the daily scheme of things? Does Six Sigma need to be continued in order that the momentum gained is never lost? What would be the financial impact of continuing Six Sigma beyond complete implementation?

The Robust Nature of Six Sigma

Six Sigma's intrinsic strength lies in its structured questioning ability which, when rationally executed, bring forth the inherent shortcomings in any process. The implementation methodology allows for comparing the prevailing procedure against what is defined to being the most suitable one at reducing error-producing subroutines. For example, removing errors from the preparation stage will have a positive impact on subsequent processes.

At certain levels, this is called as Customer Value Creation (CVC). CVC is a two stage method which comprises Customer Value Analysis and Operational Excellence or OE. Both of these are driven by a thorough understanding of customer values and the excellence in operation needed to achieve that. OE, as such, is a thorough fact based and analytical approach to removing bottlenecks.

Looking Beyond Six Sigma

Preparing the mindset for looking beyond Six Sigma requires a continuum plan for the road ahead. It is said that Six Sigma brings the objectives of companies to a winning stage; it is sustained for the future when a quality approach is adopted as a culture by the entire organization. Having set the stage, preparing for growth thereafter requires an 'outside in' approach and a retrospective view.

The "outside in" approach: The "outside in" approach begins with looking inside from the perspective of the customers. This is different from that of a mere marketing slogan. With a strong footing in science, taking into account behavioral economics across customer demographics, it covers the infrastructure support, after-sales service and supply chain management. In a way, the "outside in" approach paves the way for operational excellence (OE).

Operational Excellence is said to be focused on execution. If the "outside in" perspective works toward dispelling myths and wrongly conceived notions about customer needs, OE on the other hand, by using powerful analytical and measuring tools, prepares the ground for returning what the customer data revealed.

For looking beyond Six Sigma, a long-term vision is expressed and it can be summarized as a 'growth cube'. The vision seeks to place the customer on top on a continuous basis. It comprises and emphasizes customer profitability and customer share with the number of customers. The growth cube is framed with a view to long lasting growth in terms of the three components instead of growth volumes.

Tony Jacowski is a quality analyst for The MBA Journal. Aveta Solutions – Six Sigma Online ( ) offers online six sigma training and certification classes for lean six sigma, black belts, green belts, and yellow belts.

Writen by Lance Winslow

There are so many naturally occurring business situations, which cannot be properly fit into the UFOC or Uniform Franchise Offering Circular for proper and legal disclosure to new franchise buyers as per the onerous rules and regulations in the Franchising Industry. You would think that a 250-page franchise agreement would be all encompassing, but it is not always. Often there are times when the rules and regulations do not consider other than straight black and white franchise sales. Such as transfers, trades, vendor deals, family members, original franchisee discounts to get the ball rolling.

Recently, I was discussing all this with an individual who unfortunately had their franchise fail. His comment was that in the UFOC it showed a lawsuit with a franchisee and then that franchisee's name was not listed in the exhibit section. The franchisee in the lawsuit was apparently terminated, which makes sense right? And then that franchisee was run by a family member of the Franchisor; Why you ask? Well simple, the Franchisor did not wish to have a closed store or brand name loss and the family member wanted to run the outlet, makes sense right?

Sure, but consider the problems now with the franchise documentation and proper disclosure. You must understand that Franchisors are required by law to make changes as they occur in the franchise documents. If the founder's family member took over an abandoned franchise so the franchisor would not lose brand name due to an empty failed store in the beginning then there is nothing wrong with that business decision to do that. It is not deception to change the data, it is the law to upgrade it every 6-months.

The lawsuit is disclosed as is required by law. Sometimes when a transfer is made the new store owner changes the list of franchise owners. In the case of a terminated franchisee for cause or abandoned franchisee this would trigger a change in the list of franchisees in the back regardless. That is a very weak case unless the franchisee complaining about it bought their franchise prior to the date when the change was made, but never the less it was listed in the section of litigation, which is proper.

So, often onerous rules and regulations miss things like this because the people making the rules assume every franchise deal is cut and dry. It is not and to that point these types of issues should be considered. What is the answer to all this you ask? Well, reduce all the rules require no disclosure and thus no problem is created you see? Consider this in 2006.

Lance Winslow - Online Think Tank forum board. If you have innovative thoughts and unique perspectives, come think with Lance;

Writen by Martin Day

Although there are distinct advantages to conducting regular employee satisfaction surveys online - there can also be risks.

Listed here are some of the main advantages, considerations and the possible risks to conducting employee satisfaction surveys nline.


Identify Problems - Surveys are can be very effective in identify problems areas before they become serious, especially those that are hidden from senior management.

Working Environment - From something small like a broken chair to the more serious problem of sick building syndrome that can result in personnel experiencing headaches; eye, nose, and throat irritation; a dry cough; dry or itchy skin; dizziness and nausea; and difficulty in concentrating. Surveys allow environmental problems to be identified in a measured and controlled manner.

Remuneration & Benefits - Measure and monitor how satisfied personnel are with their remuneration and benefits.

Mood and Moral - Provides a simple but effective method to measure and monitor the mood and moral of an organization.

Benchmark - In the same way that an organization will consider their financial position by comparison with previous years, so the regular use of online surveys will allow an organization to monitor and measure their progress and development in non-financial terms.

Processes & Procedures - As businesses evolve some of the traditional processes and procedures can become antiquated, personnel are often the first to know and the last to be asked. Businesses evolve and the business processes need to be regularly re-aligned.

Training - Lack of proper training is a common cause of dissatisfaction among employees and can lead to more serious problems such as stress.

Communication - For an organization to run efficiently good internal and external communications are essential, surveys can provide a method to help organizations to monitor and measure how well an organization communicates.

Goals and Objectives - Surveys can measure and monitor the extent that the personnel are aligned with the senior management's business goals and objectives.

Cost Effective - Using an online survey service such as surveys are quick and easy to create, simple to deploy and will provide real-time results.

Compliance - To properly comply with an ever increasing array of regulations the modern organization needs to be able to disseminate information throughout the organization and ensure, through records, that the information has been received, and importantly, understood. Online surveys provide organization with a cost effective method to meet many of their obligations.

Keeping the Initiative - It is always better for management to ask than be told. By conducting regular employee surveys management are able to keep the initiative in trying to identify problems that may otherwise manifest into demands.


Management Backing - A survey that is both sanctioned and has the support of senior management will go some way in ensuring that any action required, based on the survey findings, will be implemented.

Ask the right questions - Consider careful the questions being asked. If employees feel that the survey is just trying to tick the right boxes the survey could backfire.

A survey that is to be conducted annually should try and ask questions that will provide senior management with an overall health check of the organization.

Avoid questions that will only apply to specific departments or personnel. If some areas of the organization require detailed investigation consider running separate one-off surveys that can be targeted at specific personnel.

Incentive - Most employees will feel that by being able to give their opinions that they are already stakeholders in the exercise and will be happy to participate in the survey as they will expect to benefit from the process.

However, some incentive may help improve the overall response rate or could be used to encourage early participation.

Smaller incentives could be handed out to all employees or all participating employees could be entered into a lottery to receive a more substantial prize.

Anonymous - The decision to allow respondents to remain anonymous or not needs careful consideration. A survey that is conducted anonymously may allow employees to be more candid, however, anonymity may encourage some individuals to make wild accusations that can not be substantiated and cause considerable concern. When in doubt it is often better to keep everything 'on the record' rather than 'off'.

Where survey respondents are known there is the opportunity to chase for surveys that have not been completed and also to follow up on some issues directly with those employees who have raised them as problems.

Comments - Keep free text comments to a minimum because they are difficult and time consuming to measure and analyze.

Consider limiting free text comments to one at the end of the survey or, in the case of surveys that are not being conducted anonymously, allow for a post-survey follow-up to obtain more information where additional and more specific detail is required.


Management - Some managers can regard any form of employee consultation as a sign of weakness and may have a tendency to dismiss out of hand any negative comment.

Warts and All - A survey is likely to reveal warts and all. Senior management should be prepared for discovering that the top down view can differ from the bottom up view and that ignorance, of any identified problems, can no longer be used as an excuse.

Non-Action - Many employees will invest time and effort in participating in a survey and their hopes and expectations will be raised. Any post-survey non-action is likely to promote cynicism and jeopardize any future initiatives to obtain employee feedback.

Management should formally respond to the issues raised in surveys even if the demands of employees are not to be met. If senior management agree to address and resolve some issues then action needs to have started before any further survey is scheduled.

Can Cause Problems - Where surveys reveal, or bring problems, to the surface there could be a tendency for senior management to blame the messenger.


The benefits of conducting regular online employee surveys can be considerable, but for surveys to be effective important upfront considerations need to be made. Although the process of conducting a survey can be therapeutic in itself it is the post-survey analysis, response and action that will ultimately determine how useful and effective the process has been.

For a sample employee satisfaction survey ==>Sample Employee Satisfaction Survey

Martin Day is a director of Survey Galaxy Ltd a website that allows anyone with basic computer skills the ability to create and design online surveys and then publish them on the Internet. Fast, easy and cost effective for more information please visit

Writen by Md. Shahriar Islam Sabuj

Public administration is a subject of human inquiry with ancient roots. Contrary to present practice, the ancients were preoccupied with governance of public affairs as opposed to business, and very often, as in Greece, had disdain for commerce and management of business enterprise. Ancient empires created elaborate state structures, and effectively operated an apparatus overseeing huge territories. China gave the world the first civil service system some two thousand years ago, while the Roman Empire set the structures of governance (e.g., the organization of the executive branch into five main agencies) that many modern European states borrowed in their development.(1)

Management Models of Public Organizations

In the first direction, management of public organizations, two basic models can be recognized: a) the classic administrative model (from Taylor, Wilson and Weber to Simon and March); and b) the human relations model (from Mayo and Follett to Golembiewski and Argyris).

The second direction, bureaucracy in the framework of constitutional democracy, ismore diverse because of its close bonds to the fields of political science, economics and sociology, as well as its larger scope (society at large). Larry Hill, (2) for instance, classifies theories of bureaucracy according to the end result-the impact they prescribe to bureaucracy in governance. This classification has three main categories or theories: (1) bureaucracies are (or should be) weak and instrumental; (2) they are significant actors in political process; and(3) they dominate the policy process.

Paradigms of Public Administration

David Osborne and Ted Gaebler's Reinventing Government (3) is the most popular paradigm of public administration in the 1990s. It produced a popular agenda for high performance government, an agenda which Vice-President Albert Gore and the National Performance Review (4) adopted in Creating a Government that Works Better and Costs Less. Their recommendations for process and service improvements may have greater impact than those contained in a dozen or so comparable efforts over the last century. Perhaps government has never been under such pressure from the public to be more productive and effective; nor has government appeared more willing to change. The ''reinventing government'' paradigm is a rather eclectic synthesis of different approaches. It has ten tenets:

1. Government should act as a catalyst—it should ''steer,'' rather than ''row.''
2. Government should empower rather than serve.
3. Government should be competitive.
4. Government should be mission-driven rather than rule-driven.
5. Government should be result-oriented, and should not base its actions on inputs.
6. Government should be customer driven.
7. Government should be enterprising.
8. Government should anticipate rather than cure social ills.
9. Government should be decentralized.
10. Government should be market-oriented.(5)

Goals of Public Administration

Of the two central goals of public administration,(6) first maintenance and then task. The first goal emphasizes the development of a sense of ''inside'' and ''outside.'' This requires identifying the analytical ''us'' as contrasted with ''them,'' as well as specifying the character and quality of the relationships between the ''us'' and the heterogeneous ''them.''

The second central goal emphasizes comprehending what's going on in management—the development of tools and skills for description, analysis, and action. The first goal may be labeled ''maintenance,'' and the second ''task.'' The key questions associated with the first goal are:

• Who am I professionally and, to at least some degree, who am I as a person?
• Whom do I associate with in seeking and applying knowledge?
• With what scholarly discipline(s) or field(s) do I identify?

The key questions associated with the second goal are:

• What is my legitimate domain for study?
• What concepts or tools should I use?
• What are my criteria of reality or truth?
• What are the broad goals or values that my contributions to knowledge or truth should serve?


From Reinhold Niebuhr's classic volume, Moral Man and Immoral Society, we are informed that ''Practically every moral theory, whether utilitarian or intuitional, insists on the goodness of benevolence, justice, kindness, and unselfishness.'' During the periods of no national ethical unity, it is generally inevitable that the career public service is the first to be affected adversely by the external and internal centrifugal forces of suspicion, distrust, and cynicism.

A heavy burden rests on the career public service to assume the initiative in creating among the body politic the new possibilities for igniting the centripetal forces of ethical values and moral virtues.

In a word, society is dependent on the career professionals in governments at all levels to lead it to a new value vision of the common good. As a first step in this direction, public administrators must be willing to confront the suppressive and debilitating constraints, which currently are being imposed on ''bureaucracy'' from all directions, and to reaffirm the values and virtues inherent in the notion of service, which have unified the ethical forces of democracy so well in the past.


1. See, for example, Wren, Daniel A. The Evolution of Management Thought, 4 ed., Wiley, New York, 1994;Heady, Ferrel. Public Administration: A Comparative Perspective, 5th ed., Marcel Dekker, New York,1996.

2. Hill, Larry B. ''Who Governs the American Administrative State? A Bureaucratic-Centered Image of Government.''Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 1 (July 1991): 261-294.

3. Osborne, David, Gaebler, Ted . Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1992.

4. National Performance Review, Washington, September 1993.

5. Osborne, David and Gaebler, Ted. Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector, Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1992.

6. The immediate argument closely follows Robert T. Golembiewski. '''Maintenance' and 'Task' as Central Challenges in Public Administration.'' Public Administration Review 32 (March 1974): 168-169.

author is a student of department of public administration, university of dhaka.

A 5point Focus On Quality

Writen by Valarie Washington

Henry Ford said that, "quality means doing it right when no one is looking." What is doing it? And how well must it be done?

In every industry, competitors find themselves fighting price wars or positioning themselves as the low-cost provider only to find out that in many instances, quality is as important to customers (if not more so) than the cost they pay. Quality can be defined as the acceptable standard of excellence determined by the receiver. But, having a quality product and getting it to market is only part of the challenge; especially if you see quality as one action or an end result.

You can't give lip service to quality. Anytime that there is a handoff, a deliverable, a discussion or even a decision to be made, quality is key. It has to be factored in and measured throughout the organization and considered in all activities of design, development, production, installation, servicing, customer interaction and documentation. The goal is to continually identify standards of quality, evaluate performance, monitor results and make adjustments that will improve the customer's perception. When it comes to improving quality in your organizations you have five points to consider: the product, the processes, every transaction and the thinking that leads to overall performance quality. Achieving quality in an organization is an ongoing pursuit and has to be adopted as a mindset before any significant gains will be realized.

FOCUS #1 - Product Quality is measured by workmanship and reliability. It includes the raw materials, assemblies, products and components; as well as the function or services related to production. To have a quality product output means that you have to continually improve the inputs.

FOCUS #2 - Process Quality includes the quality of work in developing, making, and selling products and services. It is measured by adherence to performance standards, fewer mistakes, fewer rejects and less rework.

FOCUS #3 - Transaction Quality is measured by the effectiveness and efficiency of human interaction. When a products fails to meet the expectations of customers and they in turn seek remedy from the organization that creates a transaction (Ronald Coase, a British economist). Poor quality increase the number of transactions needed to resolve an issue and increases the cost of doing business. Once a customer picks up the phone or walks into your offices to seek resolution, the quality of the transaction itself becomes important.

FOCUS #4 - Performance Quality is within the control of every employee. It is achieved when transactions are handled in a way that delivers ever-increasing value to internal and/or external customers. Performance quality begins with quality of thought. How your people think about their jobs, their roles, your products, and your customers will determine the effort that they will expend.

Quality is achieved only by understanding current needs, future needs and then effectively and efficiently correcting errors and finding solutions that add value. Every internal handoff or customer exchange creates a learning opportunity for the employee involved, the organization, and the system. Employees often detect the first indication of a problem and are in the best position to eliminate it before the situation grows. How they make those decisions is indicative how they think.

FOCUS #5 - Quality of Thought- Rigid, habitual thinking makes product, process, transaction, and performance quality impossible. Without the ability to think strategically, laterally, or critically employees in organizations can never develop the creative ideas that spawn innovation and lead to quality improvements. Stale thinking overrides any opportunity that a company has to outwit the competition or get ahead of change. Breakthrough thinking is needed if organizations are to deconstruct challenges, set goals, construct workable real-time solutions, and accurately identify the right solution for the right situation at the right time.

In a competitive marketplace, quality is the great differentiator that pays impressive dividends. It is never a final destination but an ongoing pursuit to achieve maximum customer satisfaction in the shortest time and the lowest cost.

Quality products and processes begin with quality thinking but here is a list of ten more things that you can do to increase quality:

  1. Understand the nature and communicate the importance of quality to every employee.

  2. Know what matters most to your clients and why.

  3. Develop products and processes that help your clients meet their business goals in the most efficient way.

  4. Make what your customers care about your top priority.

  5. Make sure that dollars spent to improve operations, systems, and products relate to the needs of your current and targeted customers.

  6. Set, enforce, and revise standards to deliver your best (product, process, transaction, performance and thinking) to the marketplace.

  7. Work collaboratively to establish quality in all internal processes and interdepartmental hand offs.

  8. Create self-managed teams that focus on continuous improvement strategies.

  9. Increase the learning opportunities and challenge the habitual thinking of employees.

  10. Eliminate the waste and non-value added activities from your processes it will reduce your product development and process cycle-times.

Valarie is CEO of Think 6 Results -- a knowledge broker passionate about learning and improving performance in organizations. She's a writer, presenter, and executive coach on a mission to get every employee and organization focused on and thinking about the SIX business driving goals that matter.

Looking for just the right SPEAKER for your special meeting or event; we offer full-day presentations, training workshops, and keynote addresses. This high-energy presenter is ready to cover topics like: strategic thinking , career strategy,leadership, change management, teambuilding, employee engagement, or organizational learning. Let us customize a presentation for you. You won't be disappointed.

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Writen by Joe Armstrong

The term Operational Risk Management (ORM) is not new. It has been tossed about in businesses across North America for the last several years. ORM and the oft associated term Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) have generally been used as corporate buzzwords, business culture idioms referenced in board meetings and articulated during presentations. Recent developments, such as the creation of the Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act in 2002 in response to growing financial scandals in the U.S., have brought Operational Risk Management, Enterprise Risk Management and related concepts from the backrooms to the forefront of corporate America.

The inescapable reality is that every single day businesses incur losses and experience operational disruptions due to failures by employees, incorrect implementation of processes and technologies as well as wilful disobedience to internal controls. These losses may be manifest in the form of uncollectible receivables from disappointed clients, lost sales due to call centre failures or unproductive employee downtime when computer systems are unavailable, or a host of other potential problems. While most businesses have developed ad hoc methods of dealing with such losses in the past, legislation (such as SOX and the Basel Accord) has made standardized compliance procedures much more complex. Thankfully, just as these new rules have given rise to increased awareness of ORM/ERM, new tools (including Risk Management software) have been developed to aid compliance efforts.

The new regime of Sarbanes-Oxley, under the direction of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) which is in turn accountable to the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC), has undoubtedly benefited the business world by providing a foundation from which to decrease corporate fraud. However, the complexity and associated technical, labour and administrative costs posed to business is also considerable. The realities of both individually large and collectively mundane errors resulting in loss, as well as the newly regulated reporting of those losses, affect virtually all areas of every business each and every day. Therefore, it is in each company's best interest to simultaneously find ways to cut losses while keeping regulatory compliance costs down. Hence the rebirth of Operational Risk Management/Enterprise Risk Management and the new demand for Risk Management software solutions.

Traditionally, few operational losses were measured in any accounting system, and rarely were the loss incidents tracked and analyzed in any way; the time and paperwork required to do so was simply daunting. Because there was no standard legislation in place, any Risk Management software tools were often proprietary and slightly more than electronic log books at best. New technologies and attitudes have allowed loss incidents to be seen as more predictable and able to be grouped into risk categories. Proper analysis of these incidents can result in attribution to root causes which aids in mitigation. Even this beginning leads to dramatically reduced costs while achieving huge gains and strategic advantages from well crafted Operational Risk Management policies and Enterprise Risk Management procedures.

Changes in legislation, technology and attitudes related to ORM/ERM have produced not just economic gains, they have led directly to re-invigorated business innovation and even created improvements in the quality of life. For example, safety, quality and environmental related loss incidents have proven to be not only manageable and avoidable, but sound management of these issues has conferred greater advantage on those who succeeded while driving many who did not adapt out of business. While large scale corruption may have brought about regulatory changes, these changes have spurred a re-visioning of Enterprise Risk Management. Advanced Risk Management software has allowed business to more directly mitigate losses. This has resulted in a cleaner, more efficient and more competitive business environment.

In the post-SOX environment, the same social and political pressures on organizations are present. Improved attitudes and tools have encouraged the proliferation of sound Operational Risk Management to the economic and strategic benefit of those properly prepared for the journey. To find out how Paisley Consulting can help your company on that journey, whether through the provision of powerful Risk Management software or expert consultation on Enterprise Risk Management, visit

Joe Armstrong writes about Enterprise & Operational Risk Management for

Writen by Trish Pratt

Many CEOs and other business people with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD or ADHD) often struggle with difficulties around:

  • Focus
  • Organization
  • Follow-through
  • Distractibility
  • Need for high stimulation
  • Low tolerance of frustration
  • Impulsivity
  • Tendency toward addictive behavior
  • Mood swings
This list is not totally inclusive. There are many other symptoms that could be added to the list and ADD cannot be officially diagnosed by one specific assessment. Not all individuals with the above symptoms have ADD and not all people with ADD have all of the above symptoms.

Should you struggle with the above symptoms, you may want to talk to a psychologist or psychiatrist for an assessment as to whether you have ADD or ADHD (the latter referring to ADD with a hyperactive component). Sometimes the most important thing is not the diagnosis but rather getting support for understanding your patterns and increasing your focus.

Other thoughts regarding ADD: ADD does not affect intelligence. In fact, individuals with ADD are often of higher intelligence than the norm.

Research findings: Brain scans show less metabolic activity in front of brain. Indications of decreased levels of dopamine in pre-frontal cortex. Individuals with ADD use high stimulation such as excitement, novelty and fear to activate this area of the brain. ADD is thought to come from our history as hunters (results-oriented, tireless when hot on the trail, ability to "turn-on-a-dime", may throw themselves into something, visual/concrete thinkers). When forced to focus, ability to concentrate can get worse.

Treatment considerations:

  • Medication - Some benefit from medication. (Discuss with physician.)
  • Exercise – Extremely important. Experts recommend exercise 3-4x/week (some recommend 2x/day).
  • Coaching – for education on ADD, ways to create more focus, to create anchor your focus.
  • Nutrition – Experts advise elimination of simple sugars and advise diet of high protein and low carbohydrate to raise dopamine levels.
  • Psychotherapy – for addressing low self-esteem and healing.
Books on ADD:
  • Driven to Distraction – by Edward M. Hallowell, M.D., and John J. Ratey, M.D.
  • Attention Deficit Disorder in Adults – by Lynn Weiss, Ph.D.
  • Women with Attention Deficit Disorder – by Sari Solden, M.S., M.F.C.C.
Websites on ADD:
  • Trish Pratt works with CEOs and other professionals to help them step up their clarity, focus and become unstoppable. Visit for more information on how YOU can become unstoppable!

Writen by Joshua Feinberg

As a computer service company manager, it's your job to motivate your employees. You need to be familiar with the many motivational strategies in order to assure your computer service company runs smoothly. Your business will enjoy more success if your employees enjoy their jobs and feel pushed to do their best.

How to Motivate Employees

A successful motivational strategy will recognize an employee's work, make him feel in control of his job and be satisfying for him. The following techniques can be used to help managers get the most out of their computer service company staff: make the job worker-friendly; evaluate jobs that aren't challenging or are monotonous; involve workers in every aspect of the job, including the planning process.

Worker-Friendly Jobs

A computer service company will undoubtedly come across unenthusiastic employees at some point. The lack of enthusiasm can be attributed to a variety of factors; he might be in the office all day, or just in charge of one part of the business. Any of these factors can make for an incredibly dull workday, and as a responsible manager you will need to reevaluate this employee's job and try to make it more worker-friendly. Maybe you can diversify the parts the employee is in charge of servicing. Regardless of what you do, the goal is to help the employee feel a sense of accomplishment and be more interested in his job.


When you enrich a job, you rework it to make it more challenging or diversify the tasks involved. Train employees stuck answering phones all day in the office to complete other aspects of business, such as sales outside that give him direct contact with customers. Training employees in this way will also allow you to be more flexible with job assignments.

Total Involvement

As a manager you can motivate his team further by allowing staff to help him set weekly goals, quotas or business standards. The team members will know what they can achieve and will set goals for themselves rather than backing out because they don't know what to expect. Give your employees the chance to work independently to set goals and step in only when necessary. Your employees will be pushed to work harder and your computer service company will be more likely to grow and thrive.

Copyright MMI-MMVII, Small Business Computer Consulting .com. All Worldwide Rights Reserved. {Attention Publishers: Live hyperlink in author resource box required for copyright compliance}

Joshua Feinberg helps small business computer consulting firms get more steady, high-paying clients. Learn how you can too. Sign-up now for your free access to a one-hour audio training program on Small Business Computer Consulting Tips.

The Five Worst Traits In A Boss

Writen by George F Franks III

Bosses, also called coaches, are a fact of life unless you are self employed. In that case, your clients and your potential clients are your bosses. But in business, non-profits and organizations, bosses are a reality whether you are a clerk in a mom and pop operation or the number two executive over a multi-billion dollar global corporation. In my twenty-five plus years working for five corporations of varying sizes, I had nearly as many bosses as I had years of employment. Some were great. Many were average. And some were just awful. It is this last category that is the topic of this article. The five worst boss characteristics follow. In each example I have also described the desired trait.

"No show Mo" (names changed to protect the innocent) had a long career in sales and on corporate sales staff. He liked to spend time outside of the office. What did he do when outside of the office? Personal investments, family matters and anything but his job. Mo decided I would be his official second in command. He knew he could count on me. I was young, loyal and naïve. I would receive no additional pay or perks for doing double duty. Mo gave me a "delegation of authority" so I could do his job and mine. I reviewed all his mail and signed all the sales contracts. I handled customer complaints. He got the credit and the raises when everything went well. When something went wrong, I got the blame. The desired trait here is accountability. If you are the boss, you take the good and the bad. Do not pass off your job to an underling.

"Will" was a brilliant man. He had an advanced degree, great ideas and worked very, very hard. The perfect boss right? Wrong! Will also had no personal life. As one of his direct reports, I became his surrogate for a personal life. After a long day of work, he would call me into his office to talk. And to talk. And to talk some more. About his past, his life, his weight, his ex-wives, about his career and about just about anything except work. I had a wife and young kids at home. Did he care? No! I was a built-in audience for the duration of the time that I worked for him. The desired trait here is business is business. If you want someone to talk to about your life, do not drag your subordinate into this role. Look elsewhere for a sympathetic listener. Not only is this bad form for a boss, it creates a level familiarity not positive for the workplace. Keep it business.

"Luther" was a grizzled old line manager. He was probably not as old as he seemed at the time. He had worked his way up from non-management to supervisor to manager. And he reveled in his authority. Every technician, clerk and supervisor was scared to death of him. Except me. I was at the time the new kid just out of college. He liked to intimidate everyone with his yelling and belittling. He gave no mercy to any of his subordinates. He would get on his speakerphone and yell at a supervisor mercilessly. He would do this while I sat in his office – and he would smile while he was doing it. He thought it was quite funny. The desired trait is respect. Treat all your people with respect. Those you supervise, your peers and those above you in the chain of command. Showing respect for others will cause others to respect you.

"Ian" was from another country but had been working in the U.S. for several years. He had worked for several large companies and always been successful jumping to a new job. He liked to build strong relationships with his bosses and their bosses. This was priority number one in his mind and actions. While I could list innumerable qualities of Ian that one should not emulate as a boss, I will just focus on the most outrageous. Ian never returned an e-mail, he never left a voice mail message and he never wrote anything down. He attributed it to technology. In fact, Ian wanted no trail of anything he ever did, said or wanted done. No "finger prints" of any kind. As such he could blame his subordinates for anything and everything. And conversely he could also take credit for anything. It worked well for him for a while. The only problem was that his subordinates, did not trust him and despised him for his behavior.

The desired trait is integrity. If you are unwilling to write anything down or leave a message, then you must be hiding something. And even if you are not, your people will think you are hiding something. While you do not need mountains of paper, thousand of e-mails or hundreds of voice mails, responding in kind is reassuring to members of a team. Document objectives and appraisals on paper and sign them. E-mails with questions should be responded to in a like manner. Calls should be returned with calls. If no one answers, leave a voice mail message to respond to the question or issue and close the matter. It is a matter of trust. The boss must demonstrate integrity in all matters and this will help to create an atmosphere of trust.

Finally, there was "Winston". A veteran of both large corporations and his own start-up. He was brought in to shake things up. He was not someone from the existing corporate culture, but rather from someone else's corporate culture. Winston never heard an idea that he did not like, as long as it was his own. He had little tolerance for anyone else on the team's ideas or suggestions. No, they were there to execute his constant stream of brilliant ideas ranging from new technologies, to products to marketing plans. And Winston had no problem with the team working seven days a week, twenty-four hours a day. Why not, he was more than happy to do this. He expected everyone to put their entire life on hold to make him successful. The entire organization was at his beck and call. Nothing was too much to ask in his eyes. Except when it came to his life. His wife, his children, his interests, his habits, his health were all the center of the organization's universe. All activities and plans had to work around his schedule and his life because they were IMPORTANT because he was IMPORTANT.

The height of this attitude was demonstrated when he chose to fire another individual and myself to save some money in the budget for the Fiscal Quarter. But he happened to be on vacation when it needed to be done. Did he come into the office while on vacation to fire us? Did he pick up his cell phone while on vacation to fire us? No! He delegated it to his second in command so he could pleasantly go on with his vacation with his wife and children without any of the nastiness that goes along with firing of two senior directors. The trait desired here is to treat your people – at all levels, roles and titles – as you would want to be treated. Always. That does not mean people do not work hard or that people do not get fired. They do and will. But how you handle these things and how you demonstrate leadership by example as a boss makes all the difference.

There are good bosses or coaches. And there are terrible bosses or coaches. The five bosses that I have described demonstrate some of the five worst traits in a leader. By understanding what each of these bosses did wrong and what traits they should have been demonstrating through their actions, day-in and day-out, every boss and boss-to-be in business, non-profit or other organization can meet and exceed their objectives while inspiring those who work with them at all levels.

George F. Franks, III is the founder and CEO of Franks Consulting Group, a Bethesda, Maryland based management consulting and leadership coaching practice. Franks Consulting Group specializes in start-ups, turnarounds, post-merger integration, performance metrics, individual and team coaching, meeting facilitation and leadership seminars. George is a member of the Institute of Management Consultants (USA) and the International Coach Federation.

Franks Consulting Group is on the web at: And George's weblog is:

Writen by Yohanes Purnomosidhi

Taboo for one culture may be considered not taboo in other culture. Something acceptable in your culture may be considered taboo for Indonesians. To understand what is taboo or not taboo for Indonesians, you shall read "Do's and Don'ts" below.

Introduce yourself with handshaking and smile
Indonesians are a polite people and very tolerant towards foreigners and their manners. Handshaking (salaman) is customary for men and women alike on introduction and greeting, accompanied with the usual smile. Indonesians like to establish relationships. The greeting process is very important. Well begun is half done. Always shake hands with your business partner. Be humble in your negotiations and give your business partner the highest respect.

Greet and smile at everybody notwithstanding their level position.
Smile indicates friendliness. Arrogant people will not reply their smile/ greeting with smile. They will think people, who do not reply their smile, are not easy to talk with. Smiling at them can make them comfortable.

Win the informal leader's heart
In the company, there are formal leader such as managers and supervisors. However, among the staff or operators, there is person that is respected and always listened by the others although this person does not have high job level position. This kind of person has strength in social/ interpersonal relation. To approach and make good relationship with this person can help you to win his/ her group. Politely, build his/her character and he/ she will act as a channel to your employees and give you information about employee's conditions and their response.

Ask a simple question and call their name
Asking simple question can make them feel that you care about them. Indonesians prefer personal closing. If you ask simple question and call their name, you have done the ice breaking. They will feel secure and think that you are friendly.

Be a good model of discipline and give them real example
Indonesians tend to duplicate the behaviour of the people they respect. If you are their superior, they will imitate your behaviour because you are their model. This feature can be used to build their attitude toward discipline. If you are their superior and they see you put the rubbish to the dustbin or clean the dirty cup, they will follow your action. They will follow you because you are their model. When they see you participating in maintaining cleanliness, they will understand your action and they will act together to realize the cleanliness.

Build family atmosphere
Indonesians view family as intimate integral relationship, in which its members support each other and feel comfortable and secure. When Indonesians feel as a part of family, they will feel secure and motivated to increase their performance. In good family, there is harmonious interdependent relationship. There is sense of belonging and sense of ownership in its members' attitude. For example, to print name card for your employees, even if for those who in low level, can make them feel as your big family members. They will be proud because their names are mentioned in their company's name cards. Indirectly, it is also a promotion of your company because proudly they will show their name cards to their friends. Create the events to build their solidarity as one family, such as outbound and company travelling. Make personal contact rather than writing letters or memos. Don't consider time spent to develop personal relationships wasted.

Provide a channel for their ideas/ grievances.
Their idea/ grievance is an expression of their morale in the company. If no grievance, it does not mean that it is good conditions. Some Indonesians purpose to keep silent when they lose their enthusiasm and trust in their leader/ superior. It is better to welcome their idea/ grievance but it does not mean to be totally permissive. It also does not mean that you bear all their problems. In this situation, art of listening to show that you care about them is essential. If they feel that you care, they will feel humanized and comfortable. On the contrary, if their ideas/ grievances are underestimated, they will be passive and tend to hide their problem. Grievance that is ignored can cause disharmony because they feel that they are not humanized. By providing channel for their aspirations, conducive culture is developed. In other word, any one will feel comfortable to express their idea and give information to you.

Provide the opportunity to worship and respect their belief
For Indonesians, religion is essential and sensitive matter. They need the opportunity for worship. All Indonesians are religion embracers. The subject related to religions is mentioned in Pancasila (Basic Principles of RI) and in Indonesia Constitution. The majority of Indonesians are Moslems. Moslems shall performs five times required prayers (Sholat) in a day and engage Friday prayers mass (Jumatan) at mosque. Respect this tradition and give them time to worship, provide prayer room at your office for them to pray. Provide sufficient break time in Friday for your employees to give them opportunity to engage Friday prayer mass. The government has set public holidays for religious celebration. In condition that you need your employees to work on holiday, give them opportunity to worship -- let the Christians worship on Sunday and Easter, let the Buddhists worship on Veshak Day, Hinduists worships on Nyepi Day. During Islamic fasting month, don't eat something in front of them. Usually, during this month, they go home early. It is good to conduct fast breaking dinner at your office to maintain the solidarity. Give a greeting when they celebrate their religion.

Offer edible food and non-alcoholic drink
For Indonesians, rice (nasi) is staple food. They are not satisfied if they eat without rice. In their mindset, they will be weak without rice. When providing meal for them, the rice must be included. Majority of Indonesians are Moslems. Not all foods and drinks are allowed for them to consume. Don't offer pork or alcoholic drink, pork and alcohols are forbidden (Haram). Any animal with fang is forbidden. Amphibian is also forbidden. If you want to buy food or drink for them, choose the food or drink, which are Halal certified. Don't offer beef to your Balinese friend because most of them are Hinduists.

Be aware of diversity in Indonesia
Various religions, Race, ethnic groups with various cultures exist in Indonesia. Respect and make good and harmonious relationship with all of them, notwithstanding their religions and ethnics. SARA (Ethnic Group. Religions, Racial Relation) issues are very sensitive in Indonesia. Be careful when you use humour or make a joke, as it may be misunderstood.

Try to get up-to-date information on your industry and regulations
Try to get up-to-date information on your industry and regulations as the country is in transition. You should up date your company regulation with new government provisions. You may consult it to Human Resource Service in order get the up dated information of it. If you face problem related to industrial relation issues, you can consult it to Human Resource Service/ Consultants because they know about the culture and prevailing provisions in Indonesia. Visit to get info concerning recent HR issues in Indonesia or you can ask Human Resource services promoted at this website.

Be patient with tardiness and imprecision
Indonesians usually call the tardiness as "Rubber time ( Jam Karet)". It is common in Indonesia to be unpunctual in meeting, dating and in starting an event. However, try be punctual. If you are late, in the future they will be later than you. Don't be late for meetings (even if they never start on time). Punctuality and technical precission requires a lengthy learning process.

Be low profile
If you disagree with your business partner/ friends/ employees try to say it in a manner that it will give the impression of non-confrontational. Be modest in your negotiations/ discussions and give them the highest respect. Bowing with smile is also gesture of salutation. This low profile attitude shows that you are respectful person.

Learn Indonesian Language
Language is a mean of communication. It is essential to convey the meaning. Not all Indonesians acquire International Language, such as English. By communicating in Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian Language), communication with Indonesians will be held understandably. If you cannot communicate in Indonesian Language, you can use English but you must simplify your language, speak slowly and clearly to make it more comprehensible.

Reward the employees for their loyalty
Payment by result is not readily accepted. People expect to be rewarded also for their loyalty.

Avoid dismissal of employees
Dismissal of employees is culturally undesirable.

Conduct "Gotong Royong"
"Gotong Royong" is Indonesian term for mutual cooperation. It calls for community commitment.

Understand status differences
In Indonesia, status differences are unavoidable and viewed positively.

Be polite
Formal politeness and restraint of emotions are imperative.

Show the respect to the family of the deceased
Do condolence visit and assistance. Use cash for token donation. Wear black, white, and blue dress. These are the dress code for condolence visit.

Be careful in handling the disobedience against company regulation Transgression against company regulation must be handled carefully.

Give direct appraisal of performance
Direct appraisal of performance can be delicate. It is as delicate balancing act.

Give, receive, and eat with the left hand
To give, receive, and eat with the left hand is unacceptable and considered impolite. The left hand is toilet hand. They usually use their left hand to cleanse up after urinating or defecating. That is why they consider the left hand dirty.

Touch or pat on another's head
The head is sacred and should be respected. Patting on another's head is not done among adults and even should be avoided with children.

Spit in the presence of people
When an Indonesians are disgusted at seeing the filth or something disgusting, they usually spit. They will think that you insult them or that you are disgusted at seeing them. Spittle is also considered nauseating.

Say that you are atheist
Indonesians had traumatic experience with communists. The past national tragedy in 1966 was related to Indonesian communist party. Many Indonesians still consider communists their enemies. In their mindsets, they always misinterpret atheists as communists. It is common for Indonesians to ask about someone's religion. If you say that you are atheist or do not believe in God, they will think that you are communist. Don't say that you are atheist.

Put your head up when you are in front of them
It is better to make eye contact with them with friendly smile. If you put your head up, they will think that you do not want to see them. They will think that you are arrogant.

Waste your time and effort against Labour Union.
It is a trouble if treat the labour union as a group of militant troublemakers. Keep in mind that they and your company have the same dream. Both labour union and your company try to find the very best way to care about the employee's welfare. By respecting them, they will contribute their support in time and effort. In recent most cases, presence of 'authentic' local labour unions does help facilitate the negotiation process when Companies and workers are in disputes. Companies and workers will need continue to trust in each other's mutual goodwill to settle disputes in bipartite negotiations. It does imply to be a degree of willingness on both parties to overcome obstacle through dialogue. If you need any assistance in Industrial Relation and Human Resource Development, you can use human resource and industrial relation service at Please don't hesitate to contact us at

Instruct/ warn your employees rudely with the high stress intonation or in the presence of other people
Don't Show anger. Pointing your finger to people to show anger is impolite. Indonesians are also sensitive to the high stress intonation and impolite behaviour. If you feel angry or impatient about something don't show it as you may loose face. Shouting at them harshly is considered impolite. It makes them uncomfortable and decreases their morale. They will be afraid to talk with you or prefer to avoid you. Even if you do not meant to be personal, they will feel it is personal and you do not like them. It also makes them nervous and their performance may get worse. Avoid over criticism and scolding them in the presence of other people, especially their friends or subordinates because it they will feel disgraced. If you do it, you decrease their self-esteem, especially if you do it to the older man. "Saving their face" is wise action when you criticize them. Evade shaming them openly and avoid losing their dignity. Avoid the use of rude or taboo word because they tend to judge the people based on the way they speak. If you want to warn them, try to use polite way and interpersonal approach, give suggestion and guide them.

Be offended if Indonesians ask question about your private life
Don't be offended if Indonesians inquire about your religion, your marital status or number of children. Those are common questions Indonesians ask each other, too. These topics usually occur during chit-chat. These questions are the opening conversation to get closer and more familiar to the persons they speak with.

Kiss in greeting and in front of public
It is not common in Indonesia to greet each other with a kiss. It is only applicable in their immediate family. It is acceptable to give small kiss your spouse if there are other people. However, kissing your spouse or your fiancé passionately in the presence of others is considered taboo. Kissing your friends is not common in Indonesian's culture even less is kissing those who are of different sex. Be aware of your touch. Giving a hug to or putting your arm around your friend of different gender is uncommon in Indonesian culture.

Hold arms akimbo
People will consider person, with his/her arm on the hips and elbows bent outwards, showing arrogant way. Indonesians label it as cocky stance. In maintaining relationship, Indonesians prefer low profile person to arrogant persons.

(This article has been distributed by PT.Tunaskarya Indoswasta to the expatriates in Batam and Bintan, Indonesia) If you need information concerning human resource services and talent market in Indonesia, please don't hesitate to contact us at We also provide free job vacancy advertisement posting facility at

Iso 9001 What Next

Writen by John Oakland

The overriding goal of ISO-14000. (History 1995)

As ISO-9000 becomes a way of life for the global business community, ISO-14000 is almost ready to debut with its own set of standards for voluntary environmental compliance.

Much has been heard recently about the antiregulation sentiment sweeping across the country. Lawmakers in Washington have responded with talk of "regulatory reform" and programs aimed at "re-inventing government."

One of the targets of this regulatory backlash has been the ever-burgeoning flood of environmental laws and regulations continuing to impose burdens on corporate America. A common thread running throughout this rhetoric has been a perception that government is too big and that corporate self-policing and self-management can achieve far greater benefits at far less cost.

It is unlikely that meaningful relief from environmental regulations will come any time soon. However, a major step in the direction of voluntary corporate initiatives in this area is on the horizon.

Getting Ready for 14000

The Geneva-based International Standards Organization, with the assistance of representatives from over 40 countries, is in the final stages of developing ISO-14000, a set of voluntary international environmental quality standards designed to promote sound corporate management of environmental compliance matters.

When fully adopted in early 1996, the standards will allow companies to obtain ISO-14000 certification of their operations in recognition of the development of these comprehensive environmental quality standards.

ISO-14000 is the second major undertaking of the International Standards Organization in developing international quality management systems for business enterprises. In the mid-1980s the Organization adopted its ISO-9000 series of standards for corporate quality management. The ISO-9000 program provided a formal mechanism for certifying that a company had developed and integrated certain quality management principles into its business operations.

While initially slow to gain acceptance in the business community, ISO-9000 certification is fast becoming a necessary part of standard business practices, both in the US and abroad. It is estimated that by 1996, 12,000 US companies will be ISO-9000-certified, up from only 100 in 1990. Internationally, more than 50,000 companies have received ISO-9000 certification.

The idea behind extending the ISO quality management principles into the environmental arena arose out of the historic United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992.

Joe Cascio, IBM program director/environmental, health and safety standardization, and chairman of one of the ISO technical advisor groups, reports that the Rio conference discussions produced "a proliferation of national and regional environmental management, labeling and audit schemes that could have impacted international trade in a very severe way." The need to bring some standardization to these conflicting programs ultimately provided the impetus for the formation of ISO-14000.

What IS0-14000 is - and isn't - About

What, then, is ISO-14000 all about? The overriding goal of ISO-14000 is to develop a comprehensive system of universally accepted corporate standards to ensure that companies will be in a position to successfully manage their environmental compliance matters.

ISO-14000 is not about developing regulations to attain certain pollution standards. Instead, the focus is on the management of environmental issues or the development of internal corporate management programs ultimately leading to responsible and verifiable operating strategies that will result in the efficient use of natural resources and the protection of the environment.

ISO-14000 calls for the development of corporate Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) to guide not only the environmental performance of a company's industrial operations but also the potential environmental impact of the goods or services produced.

As envisioned by ISO-14000, an effective corporate EMS requires that a company review the environmental issues and challenges confronting the organization and ultimately develop policies, objectives, target strategies and production processes to meet and properly manage these challenges.

ISO-14000 spells out in detail the guiding principles for the development of effective EMS programs:

First and foremost, ISO-14000 acknowledges that environmental management must be among the highest corporate priorities. ISO-14000 also acknowledges that a company and its highest levels of management must demonstrate their commitment to the EMS process.

Additionally, for effective implementation of EMS programs, ISO-14000 recognizes the importance of adequate resources, including proper employee training, to the success of any EMS.

Finally, ISO-14000 recognizes that standardized and comprehensive procedures must be in place in order to correctly assess the effectiveness of these EMS programs and ensure the accountability of responsible corporate managers for the success or failure of these endeavors.

Moving beyond philosophical principles, ISO-14000 also details the critical elements of an effective EMS. It requires companies to perform an "Initial Environmental Review" of their operations. This review will include an identification of all regulatory obligations and potentially significant environmental impacts of a company's operations. This initial review must also include an honest assessment of the company's compliance status and the extent to which the company is meeting its regulatory obligations.

Once this review is completed and a company understands the status of its environmental compliance efforts, it can then move on to the EMS planning process. ISO-14000 states as one of its guiding principles that "an organization should focus on what needs to be done - it should have a purpose and a plan."

For the implementation of an EMS, the purpose and plan includes the development of overriding environmental policies, the establishment of environmental objectives and targets to meet these policy goals, and the preparation of a strategic plan and management program aimed at implementing these identified policies and objectives through scheduled action items.

The remaining critical component of an effective EMS, as recognized in ISO-14000, is the development of procedures to measure and monitor a company's success in carrying out its EMS and achieving its environmental policy and performance goals.

Critical components of ISO-14000 are the development of standardized performance evaluation and auditing procedures. Once completed, these procedures will be used as benchmarks to assess the true effectiveness of any EMS.

The EMS program outlined in ISO-14000 is by no means revolutionary. In fact, critics of ISO-14000 argue the program is nothing more than a paperwork exercise with few benefits and many burdens. Proponents offer that evaluating existing compliance, documenting findings and actively attempting to manage the environmental impact of one's operation is a challenge for even the most e nvironmentally responsible of corporate citizens.

The corresponding benefits to be gained from this process, say these proponents, include the fostering of good public relations and community and consumer support, the simplification of the compliance challenge through an understandable and orderly EMS implementation process, and the opportunity for cost savings and increased profits resulting from proactive management of environmental liabilities and the thoughtful development of pollution prevention and resource conservation strategies.

What Will the Impact Be?

At this early stage in the ISO-14000 development process, it is hard to predict the exact impact these new standards will have on the industrial community, including the converting industry. Many observers are predicting the impact to be significant and pervasive. In part, this view is bolstered by the dramatic integration of the ISO-9000 standards into the industrial community.

It is expected that companies with substantial international operations will be obligated to pursue ISO-14000 certification as this program continues to gain momentum abroad.

For US operations the impact is a little less certain. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has adopted a "wait and see" attitude on ISO-14000. To date, the Agency has resisted programs that have strayed too far from traditional "command and control" regulatory schemes. Recently, though, with its Common Sense Initiatives and Environmental Leadership Program, EPA appears to be moving in the direction of affirming, if not promoting, ISO-14000-styled programs.

In order for ISO-14000 to truly catch on in the US, however, EPA must move beyond merely a tacit recognition of the program and provide tangible benefits to the regulated community for achieving ISO-14000 recognition.

Driso provide ISO 9001 2000 consultancy, auditing, software, and training Services. They also supply Easy ISO 9001 2000® software for initially setting up an ISO 9001 2000 compliant Quality Management System or improving upon an existing one.

To contact Driso Consultancy Services visit the web site below and see what they can do for you and your business. Contact: for more details.

Value Creation Process

Writen by Pegine Echevarria

Are you adding value to your organization? Is your team 'valuable' to the organization? How are you measuring that value?

In my work I've become aware ... and I must say frustrated that employees are unable, unwilling and unaware that they are responsible and have an obligation to know their value and communicate their value to the organization. Senior leaders (CEO, Bd of Directors, SVP of HR/Sales/Operations) all are seeking to strategize and evaluate performance, productivity and profitability of their products, services and people. Products and services are innate, they are what they are and can be evaluated based on sales, quality and perceived value.

People however are humans. They have the power of choice which products and services do not. As organizations seek to link strategy, performance and people from top down there needs to be an equal emphasis from the bottom up, from the employees, to take on the responsibility to be valued, heard, and proactive. Not driven because of the annual/monthly/weekly evaluation but because of their own purpose, drive and self determination. Employee engagement is a give and take.

It is the front line employee that talks to your customer, your mid level manager that is communicating with employees who create new products, develop new processes and implement the procedures.

Too often strategy, process and evaluation get watered down or stops completely because as it moves down ranks then message becomes diffused. Similar to what happens when children play the game, telephone. As each child hears the message from the previous child they add their own spin, thier own perceptions. By the time it reaches the last person the message is different because it was heard with different ears.

The more a company provides opportunities for different levels, divisions, and teams to interact, communicate and share ideas the more willing people feel connected, willing to learn from each other AND even more important, the more willing they are to share their ideas, processes and inherent wisdom with each other. This is critical to today's organizations.

The more opportunities and experiences an employee has to learn how to take charge of their life, to be inspired and to be motivated to be the best they can be the more apt they are to change and become secure in communicating their value.

Working with a vast array of clients I have seen that many people do not know that they can take charge of their life. They are not exposed to information that can change their behavior, their perceptions and their lives. When I distributed, to interns and recently hired African American college graduates, Dennis Kimbro's Daily Motivation for African American Success it was the first time many had read a motivational book - these were brilliant, high achieving young people who learned how they can take charge of their lives at a higher level. I've also shared the book with entry level mechanics with the same results.

My own book "Sometimes You Need to Kick Your Own Butt" has the same results. I hear from people (of all races, genders and educational levels) who have never been exposed to motivational literature who write me or call me and say "I didn't know I could change!". Sales people are exposed often to motivational literature, tapes and programs however the programmer, the accountant, the administrative assistant, the janitor, the receptionist and most of your employees have not.

If you want people to be valuable and communicate their value they first have to learn that they are valuable and responsible for communicating their value. They must be educated that they have a choice to be better than they already are.

We are now a knowledge base economy and we need to be able to have ALL employees share their knowledge, their ideas and their relationships. It is the only way business can grow and expand into new territories offering new products, new processes and new ways of doing business.

With regards, Pegine

Empowerment guru Pegine Echevarria, MSW and her company, Team Pegine, transforms organizations by empowering people. You might also be interested in Pegine's networking article called, "Go Fish: For Friends, Business and Opportunities", to receive a copy simply sign up for her free ezine at Her newest book is "Sometimes You Need To Kick Your Own Butt: Strategies for Your Success" Pegine appeared on CNN, MSNBC, ABC, CBS, NBC talk and new shows. The New York Times, LA Times, Chicago Sun Times and magazines such as Hispanic Business Magazine, Latina, Health, Glamour, Working Mother and others have highlighted or featured her work. She speaks at conferences around the world and is available for your next conference or meeting.

Writen by Peter Arkwright

With the expansion of the internet and financial stability within the economy, many people are now taking the big step of starting up their own business. This article will look at a single personal attribute that is needed if you want to make that business a success.

Being organised is the most important attribute a person needs if they want to be successful in the world of business. Nowadays, many business managers are disorganised however these people generally rely on the services of organised assistants and secretaries. Many disorganised managers run financially successful companies; however is money the only gauge to measure the success of a business? My own thoughts are; having a successful business is NOT purely about money, there are other factors to consider. The happiness of your workforce, health issues (stress), customer relations and the long term future of your business/company.

The Happiness of the Workforce. People like routine especially when working; it gives them a feeling of comfort and security. Having a structured routine generally only comes about when a business is fully organised from top to bottom. Systems of work are put in place, these systems need to be understood and constantly monitored. Without a proper structure and understandable systems of work, your employees will not be happy perhaps resulting in them working in a stressful environment. The days when working practices are all in the Gaffer's head, are well gone.

Stress. I am personally an organised person; in my working career I have managed large numbers of people, in difficult and trying circumstances. None of the businesses I have managed performed poorly. My wife however is disorganised, although also successful in her work, her personal disorganisation causes her and her workforce undue stress. Many business managers consider their companies a success, without even taking into consideration stress related illnesses or issues.

Customer Relations. Most businesses have dealings with customers, these customers will know very quickly if your business is organised or not, there will be no way to hide or cover this up. If your customers are unhappy because of your service it is generally because someone is struggling to cope with the customers demands. In today's business world people do not want to wait for anything. They want quality work/products/service as fast as possible, only an organised business can provide these deliverables on a regular basis.

Long Term Future of a Business. Long term planning now seems a thing of the past for small businesses. Generally, business owners are looking to build up their business over the short term, and then sell it on. This has become common practise especially for online businesses. However if you are looking to set up a business for a longer period of time, you need to plan – known colloquially as a Business Plan or Through Life Management Plan. A person who manages an organised company, with set routines and practices will not only be able plan for the future, they will also be able to implement these plans with minimal fuss.

This article has just brushed the surface of this complex and complicated subject. The aim of the article is to make people aware; being organised in business will help you become successful.

Interested in buying your own business business?

Writen by Lance Winslow

Business Management consultants should learn how to write children's books because so often in business when we are trying to mentor other business leaders, MBA students or small-business owners we find that they do not nearly have the mental faculties to handle the business world.

A business management consultant who writes children's books will learn how to explain things in a very simple way with simple stories that anyone can understand. It is not that I am cynical of the up-and-coming business professionals entering industry, but rather I have observed a lack of abilities and mental capacity to handle the challenges of a fast paced new world in business.

A business consultant who writes children's books will have practiced methods of explaining complex scenarios to people who do not have much experience. They will learn how to write and talk and explain things in a simple way without being condescending or telling those who attended seminars how stupid they are.

A wise consultant is careful not to overshadow those who are trying to learn or trample on their fragile egos as they learn the ropes in the real world full aid of political correctness. Because in business it is about shareholders equity and quarterly profits and not about political correctness; In business it is about winning and not pandering or excuse makers. A wise business consultants, who understands these facts can make things cut and dry for those that have a tough time grasping new concepts. Please consider this in 2006 and let's help those little humans learn how to run and manage a business.

Lance Winslow

Writen by Tom Perkins

Employment discrimination laws seek to prevent discrimination based on race, sex, religion, national origin, physical disability, and age by employers. Discriminatory practices include exhibiting a bias in hiring, promotion, job assignment, termination, compensation, and various forms of harassment.

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission reported 72,302 individual discrimination charge filings in 1992. By 2004, the number had grown to 79,432. As a Human Resource Manager or business owner, you may be able to reduce your chances of an employee suing you by instituting the following policies and practices:

1. Hire employees without consideration of their race, national origin, gender or age.

2. The handicap of an applicant should only be considered in the context of whether it will impede their job performance. It is important to take into account whether or not you could reasonably accommodate the individual's handicap so that they could perform the job.

3. If you are turning down an applicant because of something on their reference or security check, you should inform them of the reason why.

4. Have written job descriptions, including qualifications and requirements for all positions within your company.

5. Post all job openings and promote without any bias.

6. Review all current benefit, pension and retirement plans for any discriminatory language.

7. Inform employees of performance standards and penalties for violating company policy.

8. Provide written reprimands and opportunities to correct deficiencies.

9. Evaluate all employees regularly and in writing. Provide a copy of the evaluation to the employee for their records.

10. Institute a zero-tolerance policy for discriminatory actions on the part of any employee.

One final important practice that you should follow is to document, in writing, every phase of an employee's time with your company. From hiring to the firing/layoff/resignation, every step should be well documented. In the event that there is a lawsuit, courts will expect to see written records of important decisions, meetings, problems, and company policies. Additionally, they will want to see proof that you were treating all employees the same.

While there is no list that can cover all possible safeguards, instituting the policies and practices listed above can reduce your chances of facing a lawsuit. More importantly, they just represent sound business practices that any business with employees should follow.

Tom Perkins is a business solutions coach and certified personal trainer who leads fitness professionals to profitability.

Send an email to to receive the Essential Business Success Checklist. Or visit his website at

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